Except in the biggest cities like Bamako, most buildings are mud brick construction. Mud built buildings have to be re-plastered every year after the rainy season ends. The wooden pegs that you see on a lot of mud buildings are used to climb up the building during the annual mud plastering.

The mud bricks are usually made right where they are needed. Villages usually have a mud hole next to them where the bricks for the village are made. These bricks have to be renewed constantly, especially after the rainy season.

Since I couldn't come up with a better ordering, I put the towns in the order in which I visited them.

The Cliff of Bandiagara (Land of the Dogons) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Especially Tombouctou (Timbuktu), but also the other Dogon towns are examples of the many sites of Ancient Civilizations that I visited during my travels.

All pictures are © Dr. Günther Eichhorn, unless otherwise noted.

Koro

The Dogon town Koro is close to the border with Burkina Faso. It is a sleepy little town, but has a beautiful mud built mosque.

Mud Brick Mosque
The mud brick mosque in Koro. (844k)
Mosque Koro
The mosque in Koro. (765k)
Mosque Koro
The mosque in Koro. (778k)
Closer View Mosque
Closer view of the mosque in Koro. (890k)
Street Koro
Street in Koro. (959k)

Songho

Songho is the area where, according to legend, the first Dogon settled. There were four couples that were looking for a place to settle, but couldn't find water. A crocodile showed them the way to water, so they settled here. Since then, the crocodile is sacred for the Dogon. The Dogon all descend from these first four families. The Dogon found the area inhabited by the Tellem people, who lived in the cliffs of the escarpment. According to Dogon legend, the Tellem left voluntarily, when the Dogon started cultivating the land in the plains below the cliffs. The Tellem where thought to be able to fly or be wizards, since it seemed impossible to get to the cliff dwellings otherwise.

According to archaeological evidence, the Dogon settled here probably in the 13th or 14th century. They came from the area of Kangaba in eastern Mali, where they left because of overcrowding and approaching Islamic Fulani.

View Songho
View of Songho. (714k)
Songho
In Songho. (812k)
Mosque Songho
Mosque in Songho. (703k)
Circumcision Grotto Women
Circumcision grotto. Women are not allowed to go there. New paintings are added every two years when the circumcision rites are performed. They are the signs for the different Dogon families. (896k)
Wall Painting Signs
Wall painting of signs of the original Dogon families in the circumcision grotto. (963k)
Crocodile Painting Crocodile
Crocodile painting. The crocodile is sacred for the Dogon. (878k)
Wall Painting Circumcision
Wall painting in the circumcision grotto. (874k)
Wall Painting Circumcision
Wall painting in the circumcision grotto. (913k)
Music Instruments Played
Music instruments that are played after the circumcision rite. There are over 1000 of these instruments in this cave. They are used only once. (805k)

Sangha

Sangha is a nice Dogon village on the plateau, close to the Bandiagara escarpment. It has a Muslim section, a Christian section, and an animist section. The three different religions seem to be getting along with each other (according to my guide).

On the way down to Ireli, we walked past the fox tables. These are sand beds surrounded with stones. During the night, the fox, an important Dogon spirit, walks across the sand. In the morning the wise men interpret the tracks and predict the future.

View Sangha Across
View of Sangha from across the valley. (777k)
View Over Sangha
View over Sangha. (769k)
Sangha
In Sangha. (940k)
Council Place Roof
Council place. The roof is so low that you cannot stand in there. If somebody gets angry during a meeting and stands up, they bang their head, which brings them back from their fury. (710k)
House Sangha
House in Sangha. (740k)
House Shamanhealer Animist
House of the shaman/healer in the animist section of Sangha. (901k)
Village Chief Sangha
Village chief of Sangha and his wife. This position is hereditary. The chief basically spends his whole life in his house. The village people bring him food, and everything he needs. (998k)
Village Chief Sangha
Village chief of Sangha. (743k)
Village Well Sangha
Village well in Sangha. (812k)
Huge African Baobab
Huge African Baobab (Adansonia digitata, german: Afrikanischer Affenbrotbaum, french: Baobab africain) in Sangha. (865k)
Sangha Morning Mist
Sangha in the morning mist. (707k)

Tellem buildings

The Tellem lived in this area before the Dogon came in the 13th or 14th century. They lived in the cliffs of the Bandiagara escarpment, in seemingly impossible locations.

Tellem Cliff Dwellings
Tellem cliff dwellings above Ireli. (1003k)
Closer View Tellem
Closer view of Tellem cliff dwellings. (688k)
Closeup Tellem Building
Closeup of Tellem building. (666k)
Tellem Cliff Dwellings
Tellem cliff dwellings above Banani. (1055k)
Really Wondered Tellem
I really wondered how the Tellem got up there. (877k)

Douentza

Not much to say about this sleepy little town.

Market Douentza
Market in Douentza. (634k)
Bela Huts Douentza
Bela huts in Douentza. (649k)
Main Street Douentza
Main street in Douentza with small mosque. (618k)
Meeting Place Douentza
Meeting place in Douentza. (1179k)
Street Scene Douentza
Street scene in Douentza with street vendor grilling meat. (766k)

Tombouctou (Timbuktu)

Legend has it that the name Tombouctou comes from "Tom" place of a well, and "Bouctou", the name of the woman who found the first well, sometime in the 10th century. The city became an important trading post, especially for salt, on the way from the Sahara Desert into central Mali. It was also an important scholarly city with a university as early as the 13th century. In the 16th century, there were 100,000 people in Tombouctou, including 25,000 students of the university and some 180 Koranic schools.

At the end of the 16th century, Tombouctou was conquered by Morocco, and lost its autonomy, and soon its university. This led to the decline of Tombouctou. Europeans discovered Tombouctou in the first half of the 19th century. Toward the end of the 19th century, it was annexed by France.

Tombouctou (Timbuktu) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Touareg Hut Outskirts
Touareg hut on the outskirts of Tombouctou. (629k)
Nomad Tents Around
Nomad tents on around Tombouctou. (537k)
View Outside Tombouctou
View of the outside of Tombouctou with Nomad tents during my camel ride. (562k)
Moon Over Touareg
The moon over Touareg tents on the fringe of Tombouctou. (469k)
Market Tombouctou
Market in Tombouctou. (910k)
Leather Touareg Tent
Leather Touareg tent in a small museum in Tombouctou. (631k)
According Legend First
According to legend, this is the first well in Tombouctou. (822k)
House Tombouctou
House in Tombouctou. (854k)
Beautifully Decorated Entrance
Beautifully decorated entrance door. (854k)
Window Detail
Window detail. (1021k)
Mud Brick Construction
Mud brick construction in Tombouctou. (950k)
Bela Tents Tombouctou
Bela tents in Tombouctou. (703k)
Street View Bread
Street view with bread oven. People from Tombouctou say that if there is no sand in the bread, you are not in Tombouctou. I can attest to that, there definitely will be sand in the bread if you are in Tombouctou. (705k)
Bread Oven Street
Bread oven in the street. (771k)
Old Koran Documents
Old Koran documents. (614k)
Old Koran Documents
Old Koran documents. (587k)
Djingarey Ber Mosque
The Djingarey Ber mosque (oldest mosque in Tombouctou from 1325). A few days after my visit during a religious celebration at this mosque, there was a stampede and 26 people were killed. (548k)
Close-up Djingarey Ber
Close-up of the Djingarey Ber mosque in Tombouctou. (495k)
Sidi Yahiya Mosque
Sidi Yahiya mosque (from ~1400). (757k)
Sidi Yahiya Mosque
Sidi Yahiya mosque. (844k)
Sanikore Mosque Largest
Sanikore mosque, the largest mosque in Tombouctou. (597k)
Closer View Sanikore
Closer view of the Sanikore mosque. (522k)
Closer View Sanikore
Closer view of the Sanikore mosque. (618k)
Sunset Over Sand
Sunset over the sand dunes on the outskirts of Tombouctou. (413k)

Mopti

Mopti was not overly interesting. The mosque is nice, the market was not very big. The most interesting part was the harbor and its surroundings. There are drainage ditches in most parts of the town, but they are almost all full of garbage.

Outskirts Mopti
In the outskirts of Mopti. (652k)
Street Mopti Drainage
Street in Mopti, with a drainage ditch full of garbage. (830k)
Market Mopti
Market in Mopti. (890k)
Street Scene Mopti
Street scene in Mopti. (989k)
Even City People
Even in the city, people have their goats. (877k)
Young Trees Street
Young trees on a street in Mopti, protected from goats and sheep by a mud brick enclosure. (1054k)
Harbor Mopti
Harbor in Mopti. (724k)
Mosque Mopti
The mosque in Mopti. (798k)
View Mosque Mopti
View of the mosque in Mopti. (677k)
Close-up View Mosque
Close-up view of the mosque in Mopti. (927k)

Djenné

Djenné is famous for its mosque, the largest mud brick structure in the world. It has interesting houses in the Moroccan part of the town.

Old Town of Djenné is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Street Djenné
Street in Djenné. (762k)
Street Scene Djenné
Street scene in Djenné. (745k)
Street Djenné
On the street in Djenné. (763k)
Fetching Water
Fetching water. (742k)
Well Djenné
Another well in Djenné. (710k)
Old Part Djenné
In the old part of Djenné. (683k)
Narrow Lane Djenné
Narrow lane in Djenné. The waste water running along the street was smelly in places. (782k)
Moroccan Style House
Moroccan style house. (728k)
Large Moroccan Style
Large Moroccan style house. (641k)
Moroccan Style House
Moroccan style house. (743k)
Vegetable Gardens Djenné
Vegetable gardens in Djenné along the river. (709k)
Street Djenné Mosque
Street in Djenné with the mosque in the background. (751k)
Mosque Djenné
The mosque in Djenné. (757k)
Mosque Djenné
The mosque in Djenné. (706k)
Close-up Mosque Djenné
Close-up of the mosque in Djenné. (1015k)

Ségou and Old Ségou

Ségou is the site of the Festival sur le Niger, an annual big music festival. It is one of the larger cities in Mali.

Old Ségou is the site of the palace of the Bambara King Biton Mamary Coulibaly. Old Ségou was first settled by Touaregs. In the 11th century Bambara replaced the Touareg. The oldest mosque in Old Ségou was built by the Touareg. The other mosque was built by Biton Mamary Coulibaly for his mother. He himself was animist, but his mother was Muslim, and he dedicated the mosque to her.

Small Mosque Outside
Small mosque outside of Ségou. (714k)
Street Scene Ségou
Street scene in Ségou. (1026k)
Main Stage Festival
Main stage of the Festival sur le Niger. (798k)
Sign Against Hiv
Sign against HIV (VIH in French) next to the main stage. (474k)
Car Cart Caravan
Car and cart caravan of festival participants driving through Ségou. (705k)
Street Scene Old
Street scene in Old Ségou. (1041k)
Street Scene Old
Street scene in Old Ségou. (1085k)
Granary Old Ségou
Granary in Old Ségou. (945k)
Inside House Village
Inside the house of the village chief of Old Ségou. (819k)
Wood Carved Decorations
Wood carved decorations in the house of the village chief. (583k)
Old Ségou
Old Ségou. (965k)
View Over Old
View over Old Ségou. (867k)
Palace Biton Mamary
Palace of Biton Mamary Coulibaly. (596k)
Close-up House Old
Close-up of a house in Old Ségou. (957k)
Oldest Mosque Old
Oldest mosque in Old Ségou. (525k)
Tree Outside Old
Tree outside the old mosque. (1226k)
Mosque Dedicated Mother
Mosque dedicated to the mother of Biton Mamary Coulibaly. (960k)
Youngest Mosque Old
Youngest mosque in Old Ségou. (946k)

Bamako

Bamako is the capital of Mali. It is the site of the only university in Mali. It is much like any big city, lots of traffic congestion. It has a big market, and a nice museum about the history of Mali.

Endless String Big
An endless string of big trucks heading into Bamako. (484k)
Street Scene Bamako
Street scene in Bamako. (911k)
Dining Area Hotel
The dining area of my hotel in Bamako was above the Niger River. (682k)
Morning Mist Niger
Morning mist on the Niger River in Bamako. (320k)

Kayes

Kayes (pronounced Kai) is a little town in the far western parts of Mali. It has a bunch of French colonial buildings. Outside the city is the Fort de Médine, a fort from French colonial times on the Senegal River, from 1855, with a nice old train station. The first school in the area is there, built in 1870. There is the site of a former slave market next to the fort. The French abolished slavery in 1848, but still practiced it in Mali. Slaves were sold to Mauritania, Morocco, and Algeria.

The Tour de Guet near the fort is said to have held gold in World War II to hide it from the Germans.

A little further south is a series of waterfalls, the Chutes de Félou (see Mali Nature).

French Colonial Building
French colonial building in Kayes. (889k)
Market Kayes
Market in Kayes. (766k)
Vegetable Gardens Kayes
Vegetable gardens in Kayes. (626k)
School Next Fort
School next to the Fort de Médine. (753k)
Fort De Médine
Fort de Médine outside of Kayes. (773k)
Main Building Fort
Main building in the fort. (527k)
Machine Gun Fort
A machine gun in the fort. This gun and guns like it were the main reason the French could win against the Bambara. (674k)
Site Former Slave
Site of the former slave market. (579k)
Old Train Station
Old train station. (643k)
Tour De Guet
Tour de Guet. (672k)

Small villages and camps

Fulani Camp Usual
Fulani camp. As usual, the kids come running to have a look at the strangers. (1012k)
Fulani Huts Cattle
Fulani huts and cattle. (1033k)
Dogon Village
Dogon village. (952k)
Dogon Granary
Dogon granary. (1123k)
Mosque Dogon Village
Mosque in a Dogon village. (905k)
Dogon Village
Dogon village. (994k)
View Village Bandiagara
View of a village on the Bandiagara escarpment. (973k)
View Dogon Village
View of the Dogon village Ireli from the top of the Bandiagara escarpment. This was the path we took to get from the plateau down into the plains. (876k)
View Dogon Village
View of the Dogon village Ireli. (946k)
Council Place Ireli
Council place in Ireli. (878k)
View Banani Top
View of Banani from the top of the Bandiagara escarpment. This is where the road climbs up the escarpment. (881k)
View Dogon Village
View of Dogon village Konoudou. (719k)
View Dogon Village
View of Dogon village Konoudou. (703k)
Dogon Village Yondouma
Dogon village Yondouma. (1172k)
Dogon Village Damassongo
Dogon village Damassongo. (1153k)
Bela Camp
Bela camp. (639k)
Bambara Village
Bambara village. (640k)
Bambara Village Mosque
Bambara village with mosque. (650k)
Christian Church Bambara
Christian church in a Bambara village. (688k)
Granary Bambara Village
Granary in a Bambara village. (661k)
Bobo Village Mopti
Bobo village near Mopti. (752k)
Bozo Settlement Niger
Bozo settlement on the Niger River. (588k)
Bozo Village Niger
Bozo village on the Niger River. (711k)

Houses, construction, signs, etc.

Houses Dogon Village
Houses in a Dogon village. (816k)
Tent House Ignedjetebane
Tent house in Ignedjetebane, near the Gourma reserve. (935k)
Inside House
Inside the house. (939k)
Tree Trunk Stairs
Tree trunk as stairs. (884k)
Wood Carved Pillar
Wood carved pillar on the council place. (952k)
Sign Sangha
Sign in Sangha. (910k)
Water Tower Dogon
Water tower in a Dogon village. Some villages had running water like that, but mostly the villages had a village well for water. (825k)
Wood Carved Decoration
Wood carved decoration. (1079k)
Hotel Rooms Simple
One of the hotel rooms. They were simple but relatively clean. (421k)
Sleeping Quarters Camps
This was my sleeping quarters in one of the camps, a mat on the floor. Fortunately I had a mosquito net and a sleeping bag. (716k)
Mud Brick Factory
Mud brick factory next to a village. (801k)
Mud Brick Fabrication
Mud brick fabrication. (660k)
Mud Brick Fabrication
Mud brick fabrication along the Niger River. (682k)
Mud Plastering Wall
Mud plastering a wall. As frequently seen, one or two people were working, the others were watching. (859k)
Quarry Building Stones
Quarry for building stones. (987k)
Advertising Mosquito Nets
Advertising for mosquito nets. (732k)
Advertising Testing Hiv
Advertising for testing for HIV (VIH in French). (568k)
Field Covered Ubiquitous
Field covered with the ubiquitous plastic bags. They are a real scourge around the villages. (1073k)

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Mali Comp
Main page for Mali

Page last updated on Mon Sep 30 16:49:27 2019 (Mountain Standard Time)


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© Dr. Günther Eichhorn
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